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Friday, April 7, 2017

Increase Of Extreme Weather Events

• It is likely that tropical storms (cyclones) will become more frequent and more intense as a result of increased sea surface temperatures and moisture in the air

• Sea level rise will have devastating effects during storms due to surges

• Based on a range of models, it is likely that future tropical cyclones (typhoons and hurricanes) will become more intense, with larger peak wind speeds and more heavy precipitation associated with ongoing increases of tropical sea-surface temperatures.

• There is less confidence in projections of a global decrease in numbers of tropical cyclones. The apparent increase in the proportion of very intense storms since 1970 in some regions is much larger than simulated by current models for that period.

• Extra-tropical storm tracks are projected to move poleward, with consequent changes in wind, precipitation and temperature patterns, continuing the broad pattern of observed trends over the last halfcentury.

• Some recent studies suggest that erratic weather events have serious impacts on wildlife and will further contribute to a decline of biodiversity.

Source of Information : Climate Change: A Silent Threat by Sylvain Richer de Forges

Thursday, April 6, 2017

Impacts Of Climate Change On Human Health

• The health status of millions of people is projected to be affected through, for example, increases in malnutrition; increased deaths, diseases and injury due to extreme weather events; increased burden of diarrhoeal diseases; increased frequency of cardio-respiratory diseases due to higher concentrations of ground-level ozone in urban areas related to climate change

• Increase in global temperatures will significantly increase the occurrence and severity of smog events in urban areas

• This will significantly reduce air quality

• Babies and the elderly will be most affected by a decrease in air quality

• Change in climatic and weather patterns will affect the distribution of infectious diseases

• Many viruses have restricted areas of occurrence due to natural physical barriers which are governed by temperature gradients

• Diseases such as Malaria and Dengue will move north as temperature rises

• The number of occurrence of infectious diseases will significantly increase.

• A rise in the case of people infected by such diseases has already begun to occur in some areas which were not of concern a few decades ago

• As indicated on the graph, the number of case of reported Dengue is sharply increasing worldwide. Many scientist believe this is a direct consequence of rising temperatures.

Source of Information : Climate Change: A Silent Threat by Sylvain Richer de Forges

Wednesday, April 5, 2017

Impacts Of Climate Change On Societies

• More than 80% of the worlds population will live on the coast lines and in urban areas by 2050

• Sea level rise/floods and droughts will displace millions of people creating environmental refugees and is likely to trigger world instabilities leading to conflicts for resources

• Many agricultural lands will be flooded and even greater surfaces are likely to become contaminated by salt making them unusable for agriculture

• Some small island states with low elevations (< 2m) will entirely disappear (ex: The Maldives)

• Some low lying countries such as Bangladesh and the Nederland's will loose very significant landmass

• In addition to loosing significant land mass, many of the most threatened places are also in areas vulnerable to tropical storms. The storm surges during such events will have even more devastating effects.

• Some cities like Venice and New Orleans are already experiencing serious troubles due to sea level rise and are responding by spending billions on preventive measures (but what will happen to cities and countries which cannot afford such measures?)

Source of Information : Climate Change: A Silent Threat by Sylvain Richer de Forges

Tuesday, April 4, 2017

Impacts Of Climate Change On Water Resources

• Another major concern of climate change will be increasing pressures on fresh water supplies

• Climate change will significantly affect the distribution of rain around the globe

• While some areas will drastically start running out of water others will experience frequent flooding due to stronger monsoons and heavy rainfalls (both of these events lead to a diminution of available water)

• Groundwater storage is already running out in many parts of the world. Many of these supplies are also contaminated and unusable

• Some areas will become much dryer, raising concerns about the availability of fresh water for millions of people (e.g. Central Africa)

• Many lakes will dry out as a result of increased temperatures and evaporation

Source of Information : Climate Change: A Silent Threat by Sylvain Richer de Forges

Monday, April 3, 2017

Impacts Of Climate Change On The Oceans

• The oceans are a great sink of atmospheric Carbon Dioxide CO2 by absorbing a large amount of it

• However, the increased concentration of dissolved carbon Dioxide in the oceans makes them become more and more acidic. About a third of man-made carbon dioxide emissions has dissolved into the oceans. As carbon dioxide dissolves in seawater, it forms carbonic acid, which lowers the ocean's alkalinity and pH level, making it more acidic

• Even a slight acidification of oceans will have an impact on biodiversity and will put lots of species at risk

• Chicago University researchers recently found that acidity levels increased at more than 10 times the rate predicted by computer models designed to study the link between atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and ocean acidity

• Acidification is also likely to impair the movement and function of high oxygen demand fauna (e.g. squid, fish)

• Acidification of the oceans will have a great impact on the ability of organisms to produce calcium carbonate necessary for their survival

• A large proportion of our food supplies comes from the  oceans. Ocean acidification has the potential to substantially destabilize all marine ecosystems which will add onto already extreme pressures put on those ecosystems from over fishing, overexploitation of resources and pollution

Source of Information : Climate Change: A Silent Threat by Sylvain Richer de Forges

Sunday, April 2, 2017

Marine Ecosystems

• Marine environments will be greatly affected by climate change

• As the atmospheric temperature rise ocean surfaces temperatures will also rise

• A slight rise in ocean temperature coupled with acidification from CO2 uptake will cause entire coastal ecosystems to change and possibly collapse

• Large migration of species will occur

• Many species unable to migrate to warmer areas fast enough will become extinct

• In 2008 massive blooming of jellyfish where recorded across the world. In some parts the blooming was found tobe due to warmer surface temperatures as a result of global warming.

• Such events will become more frequent and will have serious consequences on marine ecosystems such as a decline in fish populations

Source of Information : Climate Change: A Silent Threat by Sylvain Richer de Forges

Saturday, April 1, 2017

Impacts Of Climate Change On Ecosystems

• The resilience of many ecosystems is likely to be exceeded this century by an unprecedented combination of climate change, associated disturbances (e.g. flooding, drought, wildfire, insects, ocean acidification) and other global change drivers (e.g. landuse change, pollution, fragmentation of natural systems, overexploitation of resources)

• Over the course of this century, net carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystems is likely to peak before mid-century and then weaken or even reverse, thus amplifying climate change

• For increases in global average temperature exceeding 1.5 to 2.5°C and in concomitant atmospheric CO2 concentrations, there are projected to be major changes in ecosystem structure and function, species’ ecological interactions and shifts in species’ geographical ranges, with predominantly negative consequences for biodiversity and ecosystem goods and services, e.g. water and food supply

• Many species have a very restricted repartition range (referred to as micro endemism) around micro habitats such as a single mountain or a lake. The disruption of these habitats as a consequence of climate change willalso mean the disappearance of their biodiversity

• Climate change will result in significant loss of habitats

Source of Information : Climate Change: A Silent Threat by Sylvain Richer de Forges

Friday, March 31, 2017

Impacts Of Climate Change On Biodiversity

• We now know from our understanding of biology, ecology and other life sciences that many organisms on our planet are very sensitive to variations in temperature and will not be able to adapt to the extremely rapid changes which usually occurs over millions of years

• Many terrestrial animals are already under threat solely on the basis of temperature rise

• Approximately 20 to 30% of plant and animal species assessed so far are likely to be at increased risk of extinction if increases in global average temperature exceed 1.5 to 2.5°C6

• According to a recent study by the IUCN (October 2008) 35% of the worlds birds, 52 % of amphibians, 71 % of warm-water reef building corals are likely to be particularly susceptible to climate change

• Global warming also induces species migrations. Many species of plants and animals are already responding to global warming, moving to higher elevations or closer to the poles

• Many scientist believe that we are on the verge of a massive species extinction event which would be catastrophic and have serious consequences for us human beings. Mass extinctions of this magnitude have only occurred five times in the history of our planet; the last brought the end of the dinosaur age.

• Species in the high latitudes are particularly at early risk (loss of biodiversity will not be limited to high latitudes) as the weather in the poles (especially the North Pole) is warming up three times faster than the rest of the planet

• Species like seals and polar bears become victims of disappearing ice shelf's as they now have to swim greater distances off the coast to find food supplies

• The loss of biodiversity will be one of the most dramatic consequences of climate change. Unlike human societies which can adapt to the changes (in some parts), numerous species will simply disappear from the earth. One must remember that extinction of species is forever and cannot be reversed

• Biodiversity is a great value to our planet and should be preserved at all costs. Loosing biodiversity will not only mean a loss of beauty and diversity but also substantial economical loss in terms of commerce and potential medicines and knowledge

•.Species are already disappearing at a much greater rate then they are studied. While extinction is a natural process, human impacts have elevated the rate of extinction by at least a thousand, possibly several thousand, times the natural rate.

• We live in a complex, interlocking, symbiotic relationship with other organisms, and our ecosystem is a fragile one in which our own survival depends on those of other species

• Arguments such as economic development must prevail over the preservation of species is no longer acceptable if we are to sustain a long term healthy environment and ecosystems. There is nothing less durable and sustainable that the definitive disappearance of species from our planet. Acting to preserve them is a moral and ethical obligation for future generations.

Source of Information : Climate Change: A Silent Threat by Sylvain Richer de Forges